Al Hoceima

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Al Hoceima الحسيمة (Arabic)
City
Nicknames: Pearl of the Mediterranean
Al Hoceima is located in MoroccoAl HoceimaAl HoceimaShow map of MoroccoAl Hoceima is located in AfricaAl HoceimaAl HoceimaShow map of Africa
Coordinates: 35°14′50″N 3°55′56″W / 35.24722°N 3.93222°W / 35.24722; -3.93222
Country Morocco
RegionTanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima
ProvinceAl Hoceïma Province
First settled1925
Renamed Al Hoceima1955
Government
 • TypeMayor–council government
 • MayorNajib Ouazzani
Area
 • Total12.62 km2 (4.87 sq mi)
Elevation112 m (367 ft)
Population (2023)
 • Total56,716
 • Density4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Postal code32000

Al Hoceima (Arabic: الحسيمة) is a city in the north of Morocco, on the northern edge of the Rif Mountains and on the Mediterranean coast. It is the capital city of the Al Hoceima Province. The city is a known tourist destination despite its small size. It has a population of about 56,716, according to the 2014 census.

Al Hoceima is recognized as one of the cleanest and safest cities in Morocco. It is distinguished by its pristine sandy beaches such as Cala Iris, Bades, Quemado, and Tala Youssef, as well as its mountainous rocky terrain. Efforts are underway to further integrate parts of Al Hoceima into the municipality through the construction of new roads, aimed at improving transportation infrastructure.

Name

The name Al Hoceima is paradoxically an Arabisation of what was already an Arabic derived word introduced by the Spaniards, since it comes from a Spanish word (Alhucemas – literally meaning "Lavenders") which is itself Andalusi in Arabic origin (Al Khazama). After independence, the Moroccan government established an Arabised name for Alhucemas coming up with Al Hoceima, following the standard French spelling.

History

Early and colonial history

The Berber tribe of the Ait Ouriaghel (also "Beni Urriaguel") dominated the area around Al Hoceima, where Abd el-Krim, whose father was a qadi of the Aith Yusuf clan of the Ait Ouriaghel tribe, organised a guerilla force to fight against the Spanish during the Rif War and, in 1921, established the Republic of the Rif. In September 1925 Spanish General José Sanjurjo landed with his troops on the beach of Al Hoceima and claimed the territory for Spain.

The Spanish developed the town and named it Villa Sanjurjo, for general Sanjurjo. The first mayor was Florian Gómez Aroca.

Since Moroccan independence

demonstration at Al Hoceima, 2017.

After Morocco gained its independence in 1955, Al Hoceima developed quickly, and the Moroccan government changed its name from the Spanish Villa Alhucemas to Al Hoceima.

The years from 1956 to 1959 were marked by challenges for the Rif region. Morocco's Hassan II, then crown prince, assumed the role of military commander, and during this period, a significant number of people lost their lives in the Rif. In October 1958, the Beni Urriaguel community rebelled against the central administration, prompting the deployment of two-thirds of Morocco's army, led by Hassan, to Al Hoceima.

In the early 1950s and 1960s, during a period of economic hardship when many of the city's inhabitants were of modest means, the small houses in the city were predominantly painted white and blue. These colors, symbolizing the sea and sky, were commonly regarded as the city's official colors. As economic conditions improved over time, residents began to paint their houses in a wider range of colors.

The city and surrounding villages were hit by two large earthquakes within ten years. The first (Mw 6.0 event occurred on May 26, 1994, and the second event (Mw  6.4) occurred on February 24, 2004, killing more than 560 people (see 2004 Al Hoceima earthquake). In 2007, Al Hoceima's mayor stated that all new houses would be painted white and blue in an effort to restore the city's traditional appearance.

Al Hoceima is now a moderate-size city with a population of 56,716 recorded in the 2014 Moroccan census. It has the second-largest port of the Rif region (Nador being the largest). The first schools built by the Spanish colonials, (a college and an elementary school) and a Spanish catholic church, still exist today.

Playa Quemado, where General Sanjurjo and his troops landed in 1925, is one of Al Hoceima's well-known beaches. Situated beneath the Mohammed V hotel, the beach is frequented by visitors. The hotel offers amenities such as a tennis court, restaurant, cocktail bar, and nightclub.

Al Hoceima has been the centre of repression by and political protest against the Moroccan government in the 21st century. Five young protesters were murdered, and their burned bodies found in Al Hoceima, in 2011. On October 28, 2016, a fish-seller, Mouhcine Fikri, was crushed to death in a rubbish truck while trying to retrieve fish confiscated by the authorities, which led to large anti-government protests in November 2016 known as Hirak Rif. Protests in Al Hoceima continued after the start of Ramadan, 26 May, and culminated on 26 June with "bloody clashes", then spreading to other parts of northern Morocco and the country. On 7 January 2023, A 5.3 Magnitude Earthquake hit Al Hoceima Province, Nekkour. On 12 February 2023, National Institute of Geophysics announced two earthquakes that occurred in the Al Hoceima region, in the north of the country, measuring 3.8 and 4.3 degrees.

Climate

Climate data for Al Hoceima (Cherif Al Idrissi Airport) (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1965–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
30.8
(87.4)
32.6
(90.7)
34.2
(93.6)
39.6
(103.3)
41.0
(105.8)
38.6
(101.5)
41.0
(105.8)
34.6
(94.3)
35.0
(95.0)
31.0
(87.8)
41.0
(105.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
17.7
(63.9)
19.1
(66.4)
20.5
(68.9)
22.9
(73.2)
25.7
(78.3)
28.3
(82.9)
28.9
(84.0)
26.5
(79.7)
23.7
(74.7)
20.5
(68.9)
18.4
(65.1)
22.5
(72.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
13.2
(55.8)
14.7
(58.5)
16.2
(61.2)
18.7
(65.7)
21.7
(71.1)
24.4
(75.9)
24.9
(76.8)
22.6
(72.7)
19.6
(67.3)
16.0
(60.8)
13.7
(56.7)
18.2
(64.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 7.9
(46.2)
8.6
(47.5)
10.2
(50.4)
11.8
(53.2)
14.6
(58.3)
17.7
(63.9)
20.1
(68.2)
20.9
(69.6)
18.6
(65.5)
15.5
(59.9)
11.5
(52.7)
9.0
(48.2)
13.9
(57.0)
Record low °C (°F) −1.0
(30.2)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.5
(32.9)
6.0
(42.8)
9.0
(48.2)
11.3
(52.3)
11.2
(52.2)
10.0
(50.0)
6.0
(42.8)
3.5
(38.3)
0.0
(32.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.7
(1.80)
43.6
(1.72)
37.0
(1.46)
33.3
(1.31)
21.1
(0.83)
9.4
(0.37)
1.7
(0.07)
5.2
(0.20)
14.6
(0.57)
43.7
(1.72)
45.8
(1.80)
34.3
(1.35)
335.4
(13.20)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.4 3.2 0.9 0.4 0.8 2.3 3.9 4.6 4.7 39.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.0 186.1 221.4 238.8 261.0 289.0 303.1 275.2 235.1 213.5 186.2 181.9 2,789.3
Source 1: NOAA (sun 1981–2010)
Source 2: Meteo Climat (records)

Economy

The city's income is based on fishing and tourism. Many of its former inhabitants migrated to Europe during the 1960s through 1980s; large numbers of Moroccans in the Netherlands, France and Belgium were Al Hoceima natives, many of whom return to Al Hoceima during the summer, when the town is also frequented by tourists from Germany and France.

The town beach is Plage Quemado, which is also where fishers bring in their catch. A quieter beach is in nearby Asfiha. The Torres de Alcala and Kalah Iris beaches are also considered Al Hoceima beaches, though they are 60 km from town.

Transport

The city is served by the Cherif Al Idrissi Airport.

Education

There is a Spanish international school, Instituto Español Melchor de Jovellanos.

Abdelmalek Essaâdi University - Campus of Al Hoceima contains:

Faculty of Science and Technology - FST

National School of Applied Sciences - ENSA'H

Multidisciplinary Faculty - FPH (Under Construction)

National School of Commerce and Management - ENCG (Under Construction)

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  2. ^ "Historique d'Al Hoceima (History of Alhoceima)". Archived from the original on 2018-02-26. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
  3. ^ Kohlbach, Edith (2006). Reisehandbuch Marokko: alles rund ums Selbst-Fahren. Edith-Kohlbach-Reisebücher. p. 51. ISBN 9783981086829.
  4. ^ Hart, David M. (1976). The Aith Waryaghar of the Moroccan Rif: An Ethnography and History. Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. pp. 370–71. ISBN 9780816504527.
  5. ^ Porch, Douglas (2006). "Spain's African Nightmare". Quarterly Journal of Military History. 18 (2): 28–37.
  6. ^ a b c d Ellingham, Mark (2001). The Rough Guide to Morocco. Rough Guides. pp. 138–39, 150–53. ISBN 9781858286013.
  7. ^ Oliveira, Carlos Sousa; Roca, Antoni; Goula, Xavier, eds. (2007). Assessing and Managing Earthquake Risk: Geo-scientific and Engineering Knowledge for Earthquake Risk Mitigation: developments, tools, techniques. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering. Vol. 2. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 51. ISBN 9781402036088.
  8. ^ a b Aidi, Hisham (13 July 2017). "Is Morocco Headed Toward Insurrection?". The Nation. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Morocco's unrest is worsening". The Economist. 6 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Morocco arrests 11 over fish-seller's death in Al-Hoceima". BBC. November 1, 2016. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
  11. ^ Sahnouni, Mariya. "5.3 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Morocco's Al Hoceima Province". moroccoworldnews. Retrieved 2023-01-27.
  12. ^ "5.3 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Morocco's Al Hoceima Province". www.qna.org.qa. Retrieved 2023-01-27.
  13. ^ "The National Institute of Geophysics in Morocco: two earthquakes in the Al Hoceima region, in the north of the country, measuring 3.8 and 4.3 degrees". dearborn.org. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  14. ^ "Earthquake of 4.3 hits Al Hoceima province this morning". HESPRESS English - Morocco News. 2023-02-12. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  15. ^ Aamari, Oussama. "4.3 Magnitude Earthquake Hits Morocco's Al Hoceima Province". moroccoworldnews. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  16. ^ "Al Hoceima Normals 1991–2020". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 4 October 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  17. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  18. ^ "Station Al Hoceima". Meteo Climat. Retrieved 4 October 2023.

External links

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