Itatiaia

Itatiaia
Municipality
Município de Itatiaia
Municipality of Itatiaia
Flag of ItatiaiaFlagOfficial seal of ItatiaiaSeal
Location of Itatiaia in the state of Rio de JaneiroLocation of Itatiaia in the state of Rio de Janeiro
Itatiaia is located in BrazilItatiaiaItatiaiaLocation of Itatiaia in Brazil
Coordinates: 22°29′46″S 44°33′48″W / 22.49611°S 44.56333°W / -22.49611; -44.56333
CountryBrazil
RegionSoutheast
StateRio de Janeiro
Founded1 June 1989
Government
 • TypeMayor-council
 • MayorDudu (PMDB)
Area
 • Total224.957 km2 (86.856 sq mi)
Elevation695 m (2,280 ft)
Population (2020 )
 • Total32,064
 • Density133.34/km2 (345.3/sq mi)
DemonymItatiaiense
Time zoneUTC−3 (BRT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−2 (BRST)
Area code+55 24
ClimateCwa
Websitehttp://itatiaia.rj.gov.br/

Itatiaia (Portuguese pronunciation: ) is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. With a 2021 population estimate of 32,312, it is the 1,097th-most populous municipality in Brazil. Located in the Mantiqueira mountain range and on the border of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minais Gerais, it covers an area of 241,035 km2 (93,064 sq mi).

The oldest national park in Brazil, Itatiaia National Park (Parque Nacional do Itatiaia), is partially located within Itatiaia. The municipality also contains part of the 8,036 ha (19,860 acres) Pedra Selada State Park, created in 2012.

Etymology

Itatiaia is a Guaraní term meaning "pointed stone," formed from the words itá ("stone") and atîaîa ("pointed").

History

Itatiaia's current territory was originally inhabited by the Tupi, Purí, and Coroado indigenous tribes. The first Europeans arrived in the region in the 17th century, most being bandeirantes in search of gold. The demand for gold trade routes from Minas Gerais to the ports of Angra dos Reis and Parati encouraged expeditions over the Mantiqueira mountain range through what are now the municipalities of Mauá and Itatiaia.

With the shuttering of the region's gold mines, the district's landowners transitioned to sugarcane and coffee farming. One of the municipality's largest such farms was owned by politician Irineu Evangelista de Sousa. The farm's lands are now part of Itatiaia National Park, its forests having been preserved due to Sousa's avoidance of coffee monoculture farming methods.

In 1832, a justice of the peace and notary public were installed in the district. On April 5, 1839, what is now Itatiaia was officially split off from the municipality of Resende and given the name Campo Belo ("Beautiful Field"). That same year, the district's first ecclesiastical curate was installed.

On December 31, 1943, the district's name was changed from Campo Belo to Itatiaia.

The district of Itatiaia was elevated to the status of municipality on July 6, 1988.

Snow in Itatiaia National Park, 1985. That year, temperatures in the park reached a record low of −13 °C (9 °F).

Tourism

Itatiaia's natural beauty and pleasant weather attract thousands of visitors each year, with many rock climbing and hiking in the surrounding mountains.

In addition to the Itatiaia National Park, Itatiaia's other tourist destinations include the former Finnish colony of Penedo and the villages of Maromba and Maringá, both located in the region of Visconde de Mauá.

Itatiaia National Park

Itatiaia National Park, located partially in the municipality, is a tourist attraction and Brazil's first national park. It was created in 1937 under then-president Getúlio Vargas.

View from Mirante do ultimo adeus., Itatiaia National Park

Pico das Agulhas Negras

The Agulhas Negras peak, with a height of 2,790.94 m (9,156.6 ft), is the highest point in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the fifth highest in Brazil.

Although it is located in a tropical zone, the peak usually registers negative temperatures during the winter and occasionally snow in years exceptionally more humid.

Waterfall véu de noiva, Itatiaia National Park Pico das Agulhas Negras

Penedo

Penedo is a neighborhood and ecological park of the municipality of Itatiaia. It is the main Finnish colony of Brazil, which still shows remarkable in the architecture of residences and commercial buildings, as well as in the local culture.

Finnish immigration in Brazil was the migration movement in the twentieth century of Finns to the interior of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where they created a settlement called Penedo at the foot of the Itatiaia National Park in the city of Itatiaia.

Tourism in Penedo is a true vocation of Penedo, with a network of 52 hotels and 39 restaurants, snack bars, and bars.

Infrastructure

Education

The municipality of Itatiaia contains a system of public and private education, with twenty municipal schools, one state school, and five private schools.

Public security

Military police

The ostensible policing of the city is carried out by the 2nd Company of the 37th Military Police Battalion of the State of Rio de Janeiro (37º BPM / 2ªCia), with headquarters in the city center, counting Itatiaia, with a Community Policing Station in the region of Penedo.

Civil police

The Civil Police of the State of Rio de Janeiro maintains in the municipality the 99th Police Station (99th DP), subordinated to the 9th Regional Police Coordination of the Interior (9th CRPI).

Municipal Guard and Civil Defense

The city also has a Civil Defense team, to monitor and assist the population in the event of natural disasters, as well as maintains a Municipal Guard, responsible for monitoring the public patrimony and organizing the traffic in the city.

Fire Department

It was inaugurated by the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Brigade (CBMERJ), on July 27, 2016, at 1:00 p.m., an operational unit in the municipality of Itatiaia. The headquarters has a hybrid vehicle and a staff of 24 soldiers. The unit is located between the Municipal Hospital and Maternity Dr. Manoel Martins de Barros and the 99th Police Department, in the neighborhood of Jardim Itatiaia.

There are 2,615.48 m2 (28,152.8 sq ft) of land, which were ceded by the Itatiaia City Hall, with 407 m2 (4,380 sq ft) of total constructed area. The work, financed with resources of the fire rate, received an investment of R $647 thousand.

The unit is commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Mauro Junior and is subordinate to the 23rd GBM - Resende.

The barracks is 4.7 km (2.9 mi) from the entrance of the Itatiaia National Park, which will enable faster rescue from forest fires.

References

  1. ^ IBGE 2020
  2. ^ "Estimativas da população residente no Brasil e unidades da federação com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2021" (PDF). IBGE. 23 August 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  3. ^ "Cidades e Estados: Itatiaia". IBGE. 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  4. ^ "Parque Nacional do Itatiaia". BR Parques. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  5. ^ Parque Estadual da Pedra Selada (in Portuguese), INEA: Istituto Estadual do Ambiente (RJ), retrieved 2016-10-01
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h "historia – Itatiaia" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  7. ^ Green, James N. (2021). "Bandeirantes, Natives, and Indigenous Slavery". Brazil: Five Centuries of Change. Brown University Library Center for Digital Scholarship.
  8. ^ [email protected] (2021-06-17). "Irineu Evangelista de Sousa: O Barão de Mauá » Visconde de Mauá". Visconde de Mauá (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  9. ^ Globo, Acervo-Jornal O. "No Sul do Estado do Rio, turistas fazem bonecos de neve no inverno de 1985". Acervo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  10. ^ "Turismo Itatiaia | Turismo Itatiaia". turismoitatiaia.com.br (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-02-18.
  11. ^ "Atrativos Turísticos – Itatiaia" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2023-02-18.