Taganrog

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Taganrog Таганрог
City
Aerial view of the port of Taganrog (2006)Aerial view of the port of Taganrog (2006)
Flag of TaganrogFlagCoat of arms of TaganrogCoat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Taganrog
Location of Taganrog Map
Taganrog is located in Rostov OblastTaganrogTaganrogLocation of TaganrogShow map of Rostov OblastTaganrog is located in European RussiaTaganrogTaganrogTaganrog (European Russia)Show map of European RussiaTaganrog is located in EuropeTaganrogTaganrogTaganrog (Europe)Show map of Europe
Coordinates: 47°13′N 38°55′E / 47.217°N 38.917°E / 47.217; 38.917
CountryRussia
Federal subjectRostov Oblast
FoundedSeptember 12, 1698
City status since1775
Government
 • BodyCity Duma
 • HeadMikhail Solonitsin
Area
 • Total80 km2 (30 sq mi)
Elevation30 m (100 ft)
Population (2010 Census)
 • Total257,681
 • Estimate (2018)249,848 (−3%)
 • Rank72nd in 2010
 • Density3,200/km2 (8,300/sq mi)
Administrative status
 • Subordinated toTaganrog Urban Okrug
 • Capital ofTaganrog Urban Okrug
Municipal status
 • Urban okrugTaganrog Urban Okrug
 • Capital ofTaganrog Urban Okrug
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata)
Postal code(s)347900, 347902, 347904, 347905, 347909, 347910, 347913, 347916, 347919, 347922–347924, 347927, 347928, 347930–347932, 347935, 347936, 347939, 347942, 347943, 347949, 347990
Dialing code(s)+7 8634
OKTMO ID60737000001
City DaySeptember 12
Websitewww.tagancity.ru
Taganrog population
2010 Census257,681
2002 Census281,947
1989 Census291,622
1979 Census276,444

Taganrog (Russian: Таганрог, IPA: ) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, on the north shore of Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River. It is in the Black Sea region. Population: 245,120 (2021 Census); 257,681 (2010 Russian census); 281,947 (2002 Census); 291,622 (1989 Soviet census).

History

The history of the city goes back to the late Bronze Age–early Iron Age (between the 20th and 10th centuries BC), when it was the earliest Greek settlement in the northwestern Black Sea region and was mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus as emporion Kremnoi (Κρήμνοι, meaning cliffs).

In the 13th century, Pisan merchants founded a colony, Portus Pisanus, which was however short-lived. Taganrog was founded by Peter the Great on 12 September 1698. The first Russian Navy base, it hosted the Azov Flotilla of Catherine the Great (1770–1783), which subsequently became the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Taganrog was granted city status in 1775.

By the end of the 18th century, Taganrog had lost its importance as a military base after Crimea and the entire Sea of Azov were absorbed into the Russian Empire. In 1802, Tsar Alexander I granted the city special status, which lasted until 1887. In 1825, the Alexander I Palace in Taganrog was used as his summer residence, and he died there in November 1825. Also in Taganrog is the House of Teacher, a mansion where numerous artists have performed.

Although it had been bombarded and damaged by an Anglo-French fleet in 1855, Taganrog became important as a commercial port, used for the import of grain by the end of the 19th century until the early 20th century. Industrialization increased in the city when Belgian and German investors founded a boiler factory, an iron and steel foundry, a leather factory, and an oil press factory. By 1911, fifteen foreign consulates had opened in the city.

During World War I, Taganrog was occupied by the troops of the German Army from May to August 1918. In 1919, General Anton Denikin established his headquarters at the Avgerino mansion in the city while commanding White Russian troops fighting in South Russia during the Russian Civil War. When the White Russians were defeated and Bolshevik power was established in the city on 25 December 1919, Denikin's remaining troops and the British Consulate were evacuated by HMS Montrose. Full power was granted to the executive committee of The City Soviet Workers' council on 17 December 1920, and Taganrog briefly joined the Ukrainian SSR as the administrative center of Taganrog Okrug, until it was transferred to the Russian SFSR along with Shakhty Okrug on 1 October 1924.

During World War II, Taganrog was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1943 during Operation Barbarossa, when two SS divisions entered the city on 17 October 1941, followed by the Wehrmacht. The city suffered extensive damage. Under German occupation the local government system was replaced by a German-style Bürgermeisteramt (Mayor's Office), which governed the city until it was liberated by the Red Army on 30 August 1943.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Taganrog Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.

Economy

Taganrog is the leading industrial center of Rostov Oblast. Local industry is represented by aerospace, machine-building, automobile, military, iron and steel industry, engineering, metal traders and processors, timber, woodwork, pulp and paper, food, light, chemical and construction materials. The city is one of the major ports of the Sea of Azov.

The biggest company currently operating in Taganrog is Taganrog Iron & Steel Factory, (publicly traded company Tagmet), which manufactures steel, steel pipe, for oil and gas industry and consumer goods. The other major employer is Taganrog Auto Factory (TagAZ Ltd.), which originated from Taganrog Combine Harvester Factory. The plant manufactures automobiles licensed by Hyundai. The production line includes Hyundai Accent compact sedan, mid-size Hyundai Sonata, sport utility vehicle Santa Fe, and Hyundai Porter pickup truck. Taganrog is also home to the aircraft design bureau Beriev.

The area around Taganrog has a large industrial potential, a diversified agricultural industry, production plants, and a modern infrastructure. The location of Taganrog on the intersection of traffic routes and the seaport facilitate access to the emerging CIS markets.

Taganrog's main trading partners are the CIS countries, South Korea, Turkey, Italy, Greece, and Egypt.

Military

Alferaki Palace on Frunze Street

The Taganrog air base is six kilometres (3 nmi) northwest of the city and hosts the Taganrog Aviation Museum. The city also hosts the Taganrog military museum.

Higher education

Climate

The climate of Taganrog is temperate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). Taganrog experiences moderately cold (mild by Russian standards) winters and hot summers.

Climate data for Taganrog (1991–2020, extremes 1905–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.6
(51.1)
15.6
(60.1)
22.0
(71.6)
28.4
(83.1)
35.8
(96.4)
37.4
(99.3)
40.5
(104.9)
40.5
(104.9)
35.6
(96.1)
30.5
(86.9)
22.7
(72.9)
14.5
(58.1)
40.5
(104.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
1.3
(34.3)
7.0
(44.6)
15.4
(59.7)
22.2
(72.0)
27.1
(80.8)
29.9
(85.8)
29.5
(85.1)
22.9
(73.2)
15.0
(59.0)
6.8
(44.2)
1.7
(35.1)
14.9
(58.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
3.2
(37.8)
10.9
(51.6)
17.6
(63.7)
22.3
(72.1)
24.7
(76.5)
24.1
(75.4)
18.0
(64.4)
11.0
(51.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.9
(30.4)
10.9
(51.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −4.5
(23.9)
−4.2
(24.4)
0.5
(32.9)
7.5
(45.5)
13.6
(56.5)
18.0
(64.4)
20.2
(68.4)
19.4
(66.9)
13.8
(56.8)
7.9
(46.2)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
7.6
(45.7)
Record low °C (°F) −32.0
(−25.6)
−29.5
(−21.1)
−23.7
(−10.7)
−7.0
(19.4)
−0.9
(30.4)
4.6
(40.3)
9.6
(49.3)
7.3
(45.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
−10.3
(13.5)
−20.9
(−5.6)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−32.0
(−25.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58
(2.3)
48
(1.9)
45
(1.8)
39
(1.5)
51
(2.0)
59
(2.3)
39
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
49
(1.9)
42
(1.7)
49
(1.9)
56
(2.2)
571
(22.5)
Average precipitation days 13.7 12.9 11.4 9.9 8.9 8.9 7.8 6.6 6.7 8.8 11.4 14.4 121.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 60 80 129 195 271 293 318 305 237 158 70 44 2,160
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source 2: Climatebase (precipitation days, sun 1916–2012)

Culture

Architecture

Bishop's House, also known as Kirsanov's house, Shtalberg House and Telegraph House are located in Taganrog.

Taganrog in literature

The Assumption Cathedral in Taganrog, Russia (1818–1938), where Anton Chekhov was christened on February 10, 1860

Anton Chekhov featured the city and its people in many of his works, including Ionych, The House with an Attic, The Man in a Shell, Van'ka, Three Years, Mask, and My Life. It is believed that Taganrog may have been the Lukomorye (fairy tale land) in which Alexander Pushkin's Ruslan and Lyudmila (1820) was set. The city also appeared in the novels of Ivan Vasilenko and Konstantin Paustovsky and in the poems of Nikolay Sherbina and Valentin Parnakh.

The legend of "Elder Fyodor Kuzmich" is cited in the book Roza Mira by Russian mystic Daniil Andreyev. According to this legend, the Russian tsar Alexander I did not die in Taganrog, but instead left his crown and the status of monarch to continue his life as a traveling hermit.

In foreign literature, the city was mentioned in the titles of Der Tote von Taganrog by Eberhard von Cranach-Sichart and Taganrog by Reinhold Schneider.

In 2004 Sabine Wichert published a collection of poems entitled Taganrog.

In Maria Kuncewiczowa's 1945 novel The Stranger (New York, LB Fischer publisher), the city of Taganrog plays an essential role as a place of nostalgic happiness for the uprooted Polish musician and matriarch, Rose.

Notable people

Birth house of Faina Ranevskaya

Numerous Russian and international aristocrats, politicians, artists, and scientists were born and/or have lived in Taganrog. Taganrog is the native city of

It is also associated with:

Twin towns – sister cities

Taganrog is twinned with:

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #340-ZS
  2. ^ Decision #537
  3. ^ a b c Charter of Taganrog, Article 2
  4. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 454–455. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ a b Charter of Taganrog, Article 12
  6. ^ Official website of Taganrog. Mikhail Solonitsin, Head of the Administration of the City of Taganrog (in Russian)
  7. ^ Official website of Taganrog. Information About Taganrog (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 . Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. ^ a b c Law #190-ZS
  11. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  13. ^ Rostov Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Cities with Populations of 100,000 and Over (in Russian)
  14. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (in Russian).
  15. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров . Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики . 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России (XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (in Russian). 1979 – via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  17. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  18. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (in Russian).
  19. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров . Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики . 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  20. ^ "taganrogcity.com - Taganrog's Ancient History". taganrogcity.com.
  21. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Taganrog" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 355–356.
  22. ^ "taganrogcity.com - Taganrog History in the 19th Century". taganrogcity.com.
  23. ^ "Погода и Климат – Климат Таганрог" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  24. ^ "Taganrog, Rostov, Russia #34720". Climatebase. Retrieved November 15, 2021.
  25. ^ Михайлов, В. Д. К локализации пушкинского Лукоморья (in Russian). Retrieved January 13, 2009.
  26. ^ Troubetzkoy, Alexis S. Imperial Legend: The Mysterious Disappearance of Tsar Alexander I. New York: Arcade, 2002
  27. ^ "Города - партнеры". tagancity.ru (in Russian). Taganrog. Retrieved February 5, 2020.

Sources

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Taganrog.